The British North American Act, enacted March 29, 1867 by the British Parliament, provided for Confederation of the three British North American colonies, Canada (Upper and Lower), Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Now much amended as the Constitution Act, 1867, it was proclaimed into law on July 1, 1867 and Canada was born. The first official birthday celebration was in 1868, July 1 being named Dominion Day in 1879 and Canada Day in 1982.
Just eleven years on from 1867 The Cromaboo Mail Carrier was published in Guelph, Ontario. The author is Mary Leslie (1842-1920). Cromaboo is Erin, described by Leslie as "the most blackguard village, and is settled by the lowest Irish, Highland Scotch, and Dutch. ... Fights are frequent, drunkeness flourishes, vice abounds; more tobacco is smoked there than in any village of the same size in the Dominion; swearing is so common that it passes unnoticed, and there is an illegitimate child in nearly every house." The good citizens of Erin were not happy and looked to have copies destroyed. The book is rare.